Delaware Park was designed for the city of Buffalo in 1868 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. In the mid 1800’s Buffalo was growing by leaps and bounds and some of the movers and shakers wanted a park that rivaled New York City’s Central Park. It too was designed by Olmsted. So he was brought to Buffalo to give us our own ‘Central Park’.
Shortly after he arrived, Olmsted was given a tour of the city. He felt the design of our streets was conducive to a park system instead of just one central park. He and Vaux convinced city leaders to put in the system. And boy, am I glad they did. It was to become the most ambitious park system in our country, with Delaware Park (originally called simply ‘The Park’) as it’s crowned jewel.
There are two buildings in the park that are still readily accessible to the general public, and I’d like to take a look at both of these today.
Marcy Casino in Delaware Park
Let’s begin on the water side of the park with Marcy Casino. And let’s start before Marcy Casino was built. Originally, Calvert Vaux designed a boathouse in 1874 that was located where Marcy Casino now stands. That is, on the south side of Hoyt Lake east of Lincoln Parkway. The boathouse was a very popular spot for Buffalonians in summer and in winter. Remember, this was when skating was allowed on the lake in the winter months. So the boathouse was used all year round. Just look at that design, it must have been a sight to see! And an exceptionally pretty place to relax and enjoy the view.
Oh, to be able to time travel. I’d definitely put myself there on a beautiful summer afternoon in say, 1890.
Unfortunately, the Boathouse burned down in 1900. Seriously, Buffalo lost so many beautiful buildings to fire. This is another one.
The Second “Boathouse”
The Pan American Exposition was set to take place in 1901, and Delaware Park was to play a big part in the festivities. So Buffalo’s most prolific architect, E.B. Green, was brought in to design another building to replace the former Boathouse. True to form, Green designed a beautiful building. The Casino proved to be just as popular as the original Boathouse.
In 1961, for whatever reason, the entire interior of the building was ‘modernized’. It no longer reflected the style of either E.B. Green or Calvert Vaux. I will never understand how these decisions get made. In any case, in 1990 it was returned, not to the original design, but to reflect the original style of the building. For this, I am grateful.
William Marcy served as the Delaware District City Councilman from 1978 – 1983. The building was renamed for him, both for his devotion to Buffalo and to the casino itself.
I have always loved the look of Marcy Casino. There’s a good reason E.B. Green was one of Buffalo’s most successful architects. Pure talent.
If you visit, don’t forget to check out Delaware Park’s Rose Garden, a gorgeous little gem, just south of Marcy Casino. Take a stroll down Shakespeare Hill, directly east of the Rose Garden. Continue on the path around Hoyt Lake. You can’t get lost, except in your own thoughts. It’s a great place for that.
Nowadays, there is a restaurant inside the casino called The Terrace. If you haven’t been there, you should check it out. From the terrace, you can enjoy one of the best views in Buffalo. Sit outside, close your eyes and daydream about being in the original Boathouse, in 1890.
The Parkside Lodge in Delaware Park
The other building that is readily accessible to the public in Delaware Park is the Parkside Lodge. This building is on the east side of the park, with an address on Parkside Avenue. The Lodge was not a part of Frederick Law Olmsted’s original plan for the park. But a golf course in the middle of the meadow wasn’t either. We could discuss the golf course pros and cons at length, but not today. Today we’ll discuss the golf course only as it relates to the Parkside Lodge.
Before the Lodge was built, the golf course was put in, and was well used from the beginning. And in 1912, the lawn bowling greens were put in. That’s the area surrounded by wrought iron fencing just to the south of the Lodge. You see, apparently lawn bowling was a big thing shortly after the turn of the 20th century. In 1909, Buffalo had formed a lawn bowling league, and they played in Delaware Park. In fact, not long after the greens were completed, the International Lawn Bowling Association held it’s first tournament in the park. Interesting.
Sometimes, ‘interesting’ is what I say when I can scarcely believe something. I’ve never really thought of Buffalo as a lawn bowling kind of town. Come on now, you were thinking it too. Hey, I’m a firm believer in “don’t knock it till you try it” so maybe I’ll give it a try. You never know, I may bring it back!
A “Shelter” is Built
In 1913, it was clear the lawn bowling greens and the golf course needed a shelter to support their activities. The building we now know as the Parkside Lodge was built in 1914, and is a really nice example of Arts and Crafts design in architecture. I happen to love arts and crafts design. And I think Olmsted would approve too. (Not of the golf course. But, not today.)
Before I get into the lodge itself, let’s talk about the quarry that used to be in the park. Yes, you heard that right. There used to be a quarry in Delaware Park. As a matter of fact, some of the original buildings in the park were built with stone from this quarry. It was close to Parkside Avenue, between the parking lot closest to the 198 and the basketball courts. Olmsted created a ‘quarry garden’ and worked it into his plan for the park. The first time I saw a photo of the quarry garden, I had that feeling like I missed out on something. It’s the type of thing that you can’t really imagine without actually seeing it. And like all amazing things, photos I’m sure don’t do it justice. Here’s one anyway.
In these days of social distancing, we can still head over to Delaware Park for a walk, or a bike ride. Walk around Ring Road and take a look at the Parkside Lodge as you pass by. Better yet, walk over and take a closer look now that you know all about it! On a side note, the real name of Ring Road is actually Meadow Drive. (!)
When you do, notice that in front of the Lodge there are two ‘bridges’ that appear in the grass along the path. I’ve read these were originally bridges over the quarry, and when the quarry was filled in, they were left to add interest to the winding pathway in the grass. More recently I’ve read they were added after the quarry was filled in. Whichever it is, I find them to be charming in that setting. They add to the overall feel of the place.
And that is the feel of a time gone by, filled with tons of historic charm. With the dark woodwork and big fireplace. You can almost picture the lawn bowlers and golfers in 1914 enjoying drinks on the patio after a match. Both men and women, by the way. Women had the freedom to enjoy both in 1914 Buffalo. That’s the upside. The downside is that it was mostly the upper echelon who were able to enjoy both of those games in Delaware Park. We can be glad that’s changed, if only somewhat. I fear that golf will always be a sport of the privileged class. But lawn bowling on the other hand…that we could bring back.
Wrap It Up
Marcy Casino on the west side of the park, and the Parkside Lodge on the east side, are both two Buffalo treasures hiding in plain sight. Go see them on one of your quarantine walks. You’ll be glad you did. Helpful hint: Park on the Ring Road side of the park and walk Nottingham Terrace to cross the pedestrian bridge over the 198 and go see Marcy Casino. Then proceed around Hoyt Lake and head back to Ring Road to see the Parkside Lodge. Might take you a couple of hours if you take your time, but it’ll be beautiful, and you’ll sleep like a baby that night.
Several years ago now, I heard a story about a particular house in Arlington Park. The person telling it spoke about the architectural detail, the unique building process and the care that has been taken to keep the structure original. I had no idea where Arlington Park was. Of course I asked a few questions and the next chance I had, I took off to explore. Here’s a photo of that house. To my eye, it’s enchanting. And it sparked a real interest in residential parks.
In the beginning (1856), Arlington Park was designed and laid out as a private park on the estate of James Wadsworth. The estate was accessed from North Street and extended to Allen, bordering on Wadsworth Street. Private parks were quite common among the rich in Buffalo at the time. For us, that’s hard to imagine today, even among the rich.
Wadsworth was wealthy to be sure. He was from Durham, Connecticut, and was a Yale graduate who settled in Buffalo in 1845, to open a law practice. By 1850 he was chosen as the city’s attorney, and by 1851 he was elected Mayor of Buffalo. He served one term, which was one year at the time. He was then named president of Buffalo, Brantford and Goderich Railroad after his mayoral term ended, and also served as a New York State Senator from 1856-58.
Basically, you could say he was successful enough to have a private park on his estate. Wadsworth left Buffalo for New York City in 1859.
The city grew up around the park and through pedestrian use, the park was eventually ruled to be part of public domain in 1884.
Frederick Law Olmsted lived on Arlington Park while he was working in Buffalo designing our Park System. He actually designed the green space in the park, going off of his own notion of what a common city space should be. After experiencing the park, I have to agree with that notion. It is everything a residential park should be! Trees, shrubs, flowers, meandering walkways, pretty light posts. Enough space to throw a frisbee around or have a picnic, but not enough space for a baseball diamond. You get the idea.
Arlington Park is in Allentown just one block off of the busiest end of Allen Street. It’s a small 300’ x 100’ plot of land. But standing in the center of the park, you would never believe the shenanigans that go on one block over. The park is such a haven. It’s quiet (it really is!), it’s picturesque, and the homes. They are nothing short of spectacular!
The story goes that because Olmsted lived here, architects were attracted to building here, and they all tried to outdo each other. Whether it’s true or not, we’ll never know. But you have to admit, it must have been a rare opportunity to be able to build on a park designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the greatest landscape architect our country has ever seen. What we do know for sure is, the homes that were built here make living on Arlington Park quite a charming prospect.
They are all different styles and sizes. Some are apartments, some are single family homes. They are all well maintained. They are very close together. Some people think this lends itself to the sense of community here. My husband and I have always joked that the reason we have great parties is because our house is small and people are forced to mingle. There’s something to be said for that.
Same thing applies to this type of city living. There is a sense of community when you know your neighbors. Some neighborhoods have it. Arlington Park definitely does. I’ve wandered through many times, and each time, I get into friendly little conversations with residents and visitors alike. This is truly what a community should be.
There also appears to be an active block club in Arlington Park who keeps the residents in touch, the park in good shape, the flowers planted etc. The overall effect of all of it is serene, appealing and friendly.
If you think about it, Arlington Park is actually a microcosm of what Buffalo truly is. A warm, welcoming, friendly place to live.
As I mentioned in part one of this series, residential parks are a great place to do a bit of urban exploration. Arlington Park is no exception. Take some time this spring and summer to get out and experience it and the surrounding neighborhood. Fair warning, you may find yourself getting into some great conversations with the locals. Enjoy it!
Missed the first of three posts about our residential parks? Read about Day’s Park here.
Look for my third and final post about Buffalo’s residential parks next week. It’s going to be a good one!
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Buffalo is fortunate enough to have three residential parks within its boundaries. They are Day’s Park, Arlington Park and Johnson Park. This post is the first of my three part series on these parks.
I’m going to begin with Day’s Park, simply because it’s the first one I experienced. My husband and I volunteer at Friends of the Night People, and on our way there one Sunday afternoon, years ago, I happened to catch a glimpse of the park while driving by. My husband is a patient man and he pulled over so we could go explore. I remember thinking to myself, this must be a great place to live!
Photo Credit to Day’s Park Facebook Page.
The park is named for Thomas Day. Although designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, Day’s Park was not originally part of Olmsted’s plan for Buffalo’s Park System. In 1886 (well into the building of our park system) the responsibility of the Board of Park Commissioners was expanded to include all public green spaces in the city. The Board requested from Olmsted designs for several new small areas, one of which was Day’s Park. He submitted plans for all of them. So, Day’s Park is an Olmsted design. Cool.
But let’s go back to the beginning.
After the burning of Buffalo in 1813, and after several more fires leveled numerous homes in the city, Buffalo’s fire code was changed (sometime around 1820-21) to stipulate that residences could no longer be built entirely of wood.
Thomas Day arrived on the scene in Buffalo in early 1823, and if you think about it, his timing couldn’t have been more perfect. It was just after the fire code changed, and just before the opening of the Erie Canal and all the incredible growth Buffalo underwent immediately following.
Thomas Day, you see, was a brick maker. When he arrived, he opened Buffalo’s first brick kiln. The need for brick was there, and so was the money. Day of course, made a small fortune. Smart man.
Day’s Park entrance from Allen Street.
Like many who possess an entrepreneurial mind, Day’s next step was to invest in real estate. He used his brick money to invest in land just north of the city. He anticipated that the city’s growth would move northward as the city became more and more industrialized. He was right. That’s exactly what happened. Smart move.
Lewis Allen had a farm adjacent to Day’s land just north of the city, and when his herd of cattle grew too large for his own acreage, he used Day’s pasture. He did this by driving his herd west from what is now Main Street. The well trod path to Day’s pasturage became what is now Allen Street, in Allentown. Named for, of course, Lewis Allen.
In 1859 Day donated the green space where Allen’s cattle pastured, to the city as perpetual green space, Day’s Park. Yet another smart move.
He then built the first two homes on the space for his sons. They are Nos. 25 & 33. They were built with Day’s own bricks and both homes are still standing today.
Left to Right, Nos. 25 & 33 Day’s Park. Homes built by Thomas Day.
Interestingly, Olmsted included a fountain in the Days Park plan. In the entire park system he created for Buffalo, this was the only fountain included in any of his plans. Regrettably, the original fountain was removed in 1923. Fountains can be difficult and expensive to maintain over time, so one can only assume this was the reason for the removal.
The park itself was enjoyed and beloved for many years. Unfortunately though, it fell on hard times in the mid twentieth century, much like Buffalo itself. Sadly, homeowners moved out and rented the properties. Care of the previously well used and well loved park fell off, and so did the care of the homes adjacent to the park. The park deteriorated and the homes became dilapidated.
In 1957, the city announced plans to split the park into a playground and a parking lot. Warren Day Ferris, a descendant of Thomas Day, produced an original deed which stated the land was donated with the stipulation that the land be kept a park, or it would revert to Day’s heirs. When the city balked, Ferris sued. The case was taken to the State Supreme Court, which ruled the space had to remain as one space, and as a park.
In the 1970’s, a college student, David Urgo convinced a farmer to donate 60 wild oak, maple and ash trees and the parks department arranged for planting. These replaced the elm trees that were lost to Dutch Elm Disease in the 1960’s. (Buffalo lost hundreds of Elms at that time.)
The hard times however, continued for the park, as they did for the city. At one point there were drug deals going on in broad daylight right out in front of the school that resides on the park (now Elmwood Village Charter School). Police intervention was slow at best.
Elmwood Village Charter School on Day’s Park
In 1987, the Day’s Park Block Club was formed. At this point more than half of the homes (both one- and two-family) were either owned by absentee landlords or stood vacant. Just 30 trees remained. The Block Club began extensive renovation of the park.
They pushed the city to deal with the drug problem, and also assisted the city in prosecuting the absentee landlord situation, getting the owners to either sell, or make the necessary improvements to their homes on the park.
The movement was under way. The fountain was replaced in its original spot in the park surrounded by a wrought iron fence, as Olmsted had designed it. But almost unbelievably, the fountain was stolen in 1995 by thieves posing as city workers. It wasn’t until 1999 that funds were made available to replace it. With the fountain in place once again, the park looks much as it did on Olmsted’s original design.
When I visited Days Park again recently to snap a few photos for this post, I couldn’t help but notice the ongoing problem the Block Club has been experiencing with getting grass to grow in the park. The trees shade the park so much that it’s difficult for grass to grow. They’ve held fundraisers specifically for this project. It is ongoing. The fountain appears to need work as well, although this might be what it looks like every spring after a long hard Buffalo winter! Mental note to check it out in a month or so”¦
I hesitated to even include this photo in the post, but when I check back, I’ll hopefully get a great shot of a beautiful working fountain. I’ll keep you posted.
Update: A recent visit to Day’s Park shows the park in full bloom of summer. I am happy to report that the fountain is up and running and looking great, surrounded by a plethora of wildflowers about to burst open! A couple of other shots show the struggle with the grass continues, but you can also see the widespread shade provided by the trees, causing some of the problem. Still, the park is a peaceful oasis, and I found myself wishing I had brought a chair and a good book.
You could say that the story of the park parallels the history of Buffalo. Both built during great prosperity, both fell on hard times, and suffered struggles along the way. But both are emerging victorious through hard work and perseverance.
Day’s Park is located just west of Allen Street at Wadsworth in Allentown, on a piece of property that used to be an open pasture. Can you imagine it? I can. But you know what a daydreamer I can be.
Incidentally, residential parks are perfect for urban hiking. Next time you find yourself yearning for a little urban exploration, get yourself to Day’s Park. Explore it and the surrounding neighborhood reminding yourself of the history this park has seen. From farmland to numerous homes, a school, and a park. It all used to be pasture land owned by a brick maker, Thomas Day. A smart man, who made several smart moves in his lifetime. One of which we benefit from still, our own Day’s Park.
Look for my secondand third posts on Buffalo’s residential parks over the next two weeks.
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A long time ago, not gonna tell you how long, when our kids were very young we were planning to go to Delaware Park for a snowman building contest as part of a winter festival, and as the parents of three super energetic boys you can imagine that this was the topic of conversation for over a week. Trying to decide just what kind of snowman to build, should we have a castle too? How many can we make? You get the picture. They were excited.
A couple of days before the contest, one of the boys (not mentioning any names) says to me with full confidence, “Mom, when are we going to jello underwear park to make snowmen?” Umm. Did I just hear that right? It turns out I did. I guess when we said ‘Delaware” he heard ‘jello underwear’!? I am not even joking. If you’re a parent, you know, you cannot make this stuff up!
And so of course, in our house, Delaware Park became known as ‘Jello Underwear Park’!
Unbeknownst to me at the time, the history of Delaware Park is actually an incredible story of Buffalo.
The streets of Buffalo were laid out in 1804 by Joseph Ellicott, an agent for the Holland Land Company. He laid them out in a radial design like the spokes on a wheel, beginning at Niagara Square (which is actually a circle).
Fast forward to the 1860’s and Buffalo was fast becoming one of the most important cities in the country, thanks in large part to the opening of the Erie Canal, and our unique access to Lake Erie, the great lakes and the Niagara River. We also had city leaders who were eager to keep Buffalo at the forefront of our nation’s activities.
After seeing New York City’s Central Park, the movers and shakers in Buffalo wanted their own Central Park as well. So they did what was commonplace back then in Buffalo. They invited the best and brightest landscape architect to create one. Coincidence that it was the same man who designed NYC’s Central Park? Maybe, but probably not.
So, Frederick Law Olmsted came to Buffalo. After touring the unique radial streets design created by Ellicott, Olmsted proposed a park system for Buffalo, instead of just one central park. And our city leaders made the great decision to give us our Parkway system, with Delaware Park being it’s crowned jewel. It helped that we had the money. Buffalo at one time had more millionaires per capita than any other city in the country!
At 350 acres, The Park (as originally named by Olmsted) is spectacular! And at 150 years old, it is alive and well. Olmsted designed the system so that when moving from one park to another, you’d be travelling on a parkway so beautiful that you wouldn’t even realize you’d left a park. The Olmsted Parks Conservancy, a non-profit organization, operates and manages this historic park system. They were the first organization of their kind to do so in the nation.
Of course, nothing happens without a little controversy. In the early 1960’s the Scajaquada Expressway (NYS Route 198) replaced Humboldt Parkway, an Olmsted designed Parkway, cutting right through the park. The Parkway was originally two lanes of slow traffic separated by two rows of beautiful trees and a bridle path. Now it was a four lane highway. Many, many people were displaced from their homes and neighborhoods were torn apart. And Olmsted’s Park now was cut in two by a highway. All in the name of progress.
Over fifty years later, efforts continue to restore “the 198” to it’s former ambling Olmsted Parkway. Although the speed limit has been reduced, the aesthetics have not improved. And just recently these efforts have taken center stage again as we take a look at the feasibility of removing the highway altogether. It’s been, and will continue to be for the near future anyway, a very complicated, heated matter here in Buffalo.
But for now, the Park remains two sided. Visit either side on any given day, and you’ll see people walking, running, biking, golfing, playing baseball, basketball, soccer, kick ball, tennis and more. There’s always something happening at Delaware Park. If you’ve never been, or haven’t been in awhile, this should be on your list of places to experience. And it’s fantastic no matter what the season. Check out these photos from a morning hike at the park in 14” of snow! It was stunning!
THIS is Buffalo!
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